China's forklift industry started in the late 1950s, when it mainly copied the Soviet Union products. From the late 1970s to the mid-1980s, the whole industry has organized two joint designs. Each forklift production plant has introduced advanced foreign technology. For example, the Beijing Forklift General Factory introduced the Japanese Mitsubishi 1~5t internal combustion counterbalance forklift technology, Dalian Forklift General Factory. Introduced Japanese Mitsubishi 10ï½ž40t internal combustion counterbalance forklift and container forklift technology, Tianjin Forklift General Plant introduced 1.25ï½ž6.3t internal combustion forklift technology of Bulgaria Balkan Vehicle Company, Hangzhou Forklift General Factory introduced West Germany O&K static pressure transmission forklift, off-road forklift and electric Forklift technology, Hefei Forklift General Factory, Baoji Forklift Company introduced the 1~10t forklift technology of Japan TCM Co., Ltd., and Hunan Forklift Company introduced the internal combustion explosion-proof device technology of British Pleban Machinery Company. Since the 1990s, some key enterprises have actively updated and serialized products based on the digestion and absorption of imported technologies. Therefore, the technical level of domestic forklifts is currently uneven. Among them, electric forklifts are subject to the backwardness of basic technology, and the overall level is far from the world's advanced level. Imported forklift products worth nearly 200 million US dollars are still imported every year. Whether Chinese forklifts can compete in the international market and compete in an invincible position with the world's strong players will depend on the improvement of the overall technical level of forklifts, especially the rapid development of electric forklift technology. î€ƒ
2 Analysis of domestic and foreign markets and forecast There are about 250 forklift truck manufacturers worldwide, with an annual production capacity of around 500,000 units. Due to the intensification of competition, compared with the 1980s, the world forklift industry experienced an abnormal phenomenon in which sales increased and profits decreased. On the one hand, in order to reduce costs, forklift giants have set up factories in developing countries. For example, Xiamen Linde, Anhui TCM, Beijing Halla, Hunan Deshida, Yantai Daewoo Heavy Industry, Shanghai Hyster, etc. have been established in China. These companies brought the world's advanced products and technologies in the mid-1990s to the country, which promoted the rapid development of China's forklift technology, and also caused a great impact on the domestic market. On the other hand, with the development of the market economy, the status and role of logistics technology in economic development is becoming more and more obvious, and the penetration rate of forklifts is getting higher and higher. It has entered the various sectors of the national economy from a single port terminal in the past. At present, the number of forklifts in China is about 180,000 units. The actual annual demand is about 100,000 units, and the actual annual sales volume is only 30,000 units. It can be seen that the Chinese forklift market is huge. î€„
With people's deep understanding of environmental pollution hazards, environmental protection has become the focus of the world's common concern. Therefore, environmentally-friendly forklifts will become the mainstream of the market. Secondly, automatic storage systems and large supermarkets have been established, stimulating the demand for indoor handling machinery. Growth, high-performance electric forklifts, reach trucks, narrow-lane forklifts and other storage machinery development is another feature of the future forklift market; in addition, global economic integration will bring internationalization of the global industry, making countries And domestic trade has risen sharply. There is data indicating that container throughput worldwide is increasing at an annual rate of around 30%. The increase in trade will drive the rapid development of modern container handling and stacking equipment.
3 Trends in modern forklift technology 3.1 Serialization and diversification of products According to the classification of the American Industrial Vehicle Association, forklifts are divided into 7 categories (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7), respectively Forklift trucks, electric narrow roadway forklifts, electric pallet trucks, internal combustion counterweight solid tire forklifts, internal combustion counterbalanced pneumatic forklifts, electric and internal combustion ride trailers and off-road forklifts. In July 1999, the US "Modern Material Handling" magazine named the world's top 20 forklift companies, of which the top 10 companies (product categories) are: Linde (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6), Toyota (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6), Nacco/MHG (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5), Jungheinrich (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5), BT Industries (1, 2, 3) , 4 and 5), Mitsubshi / Caterpillar (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5), Crown (1, 2, 3), Komatsu (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5), Nissan (1, 2, 3) , 4 and 5), TCM (1, 4 and 5). In addition, the product variety and series are also very complete. For example, Germany Linde has nearly 110 kinds of diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, electric counterbalance forklift, reach truck, stacker, picking truck, side forklift and electric tractor. Anhui Forklift Group, the largest forklift manufacturer in China, produces more than 400 varieties of forklifts with 1 to 16 t, 15 grades and 80 models. Each forklift company fully adapts to the needs of different users, different working objects and different working environments by diversifying product types and series, and constantly introduces new structures and new models to meet the individual requirements of users in multiple varieties and small batches. î€ƒ
3. 2 Greening promotes the development of forklift power technologyî€„
The forklift is divided into an internal combustion forklift and an electric forklift. The internal combustion forklift is powered by the engine. It has strong power and wide application range. The disadvantage is that exhaust gas and noise pollute the environment, which is harmful to human health. Environmental protection requirements promoted the renewal of power technology: TCM updated the 3.5-8t diesel forklift in the 1970s, changing the preheating combustion chamber to direct injection, saving 17% to 20%; in the early 1980s, the Perkins engine introduced flat lip Combustion diesel engine, fuel economy 7% to 8%; in the mid-1980s Germany Deute developed the F913G forklift diesel engine, fuel economy 60%, noise reduction 6 dB, and Sweden introduced diesel battery hybrid forklift; 90s liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) ) Low-risk forklifts such as forklifts, compressed natural gas (CNG) forklifts, and propane forklifts are on the market, and the development momentum is strong. î€„
Electric forklift has the outstanding advantages of high energy conversion efficiency, no exhaust emission, low noise, etc. It is the first choice for indoor material handling, but it is limited by battery capacity, low power and short working time. At present, both domestic and international are constantly improving the technology of lead-acid batteries, and by increasing the purity of materials, they have greatly improved the number of times of recharging, capacity and electrical efficiency. Due to advances in technology, electric forklifts have now broken through the limitations that can only be used for small tonnage operations. At present, the output of electric forklifts in the world has accounted for 40% of the total number of forklifts (10% to 15% in China), and the proportion of electric forklifts in some Western European countries such as Germany and Italy is as high as 65%. î€„
Future forklifts will use electronic combustion jet and common rail technology. The development of engine exhaust gas catalysis and purification technology will effectively reduce the emission of harmful gases and particulates. LPG, CNG and other fuel forklifts and hybrid forklifts will be further developed. With the joint efforts of major companies, the new battery fuel cells will overcome the price disadvantages and enter the market in batches. At present, the global automobile giant is jointly working on the research of electric vehicles. The application of power, transmission, control and safety technologies of electric vehicles on forklifts will make a qualitative change in the performance of electric forklifts. î€ƒ
3.3 Application of energy saving and electromechanical and hydraulic integration high-tech
The development and application of microelectronics technology, sensing technology and information processing technology will further enhance the overall level of the forklift industry, realize the composite function, and ensure the safety, control and automation level of the whole machine and system. It is more closely integrated with machinery, electronics and hydraulics. The future development of forklifts lies in the application level of their electronic technology. î€„
Realizing the integration of electromechanical and liquid with microprocessor as the core is the main direction of future development of forklift control system, that is, with microprocessor as the core, control from local control to network development, so that the whole vehicle maintains the best working condition and realizes Intelligent operation of the forklift. For electric vehicles, the traditional resistance speed controller has been eliminated, and the new MOSFET transistor has been widely used due to its small gate drive current, parallel control characteristics, soft and hardware automatic protection and hardware self-diagnosis. The series excitation and other excitation controllers are still the leading products in the market, and the AC control technology is in its infancy. With the reduction of the cost of the AC speed control system and the maturity of the closed AC motor technology, the AC motor forklift will replace the DC motor forklift because of its high power and good maintenance performance. The electronic steering system can save energy by 25% compared with the power steering ratio. It can control the motor speed according to the working condition of the forklift. It is an effective measure for energy saving and noise reduction of the forklift. In addition, the MOSFET transistor can save 20% energy by resistive speed regulation, and the energy-saving regenerative braking can save 5% to 8%. The hydraulic motor controller and load potential energy recovery technology can save energy by 20% and 5% respectively. î€ƒ
3. 4 Using the principles of human ergonomics, pursuing manipulation comfortî€„
Each forklift company continuously optimizes and improves the man-machine interface of the forklift, making the operation simple, labor-saving, quick and accurate, and giving full play to the man-machine performance. For example, it is equipped with eye-catching digital instruments and alarm devices to realize on-line monitoring of working conditions. The floating cab (movable, lifting) is used to enable the operator to obtain a full-scale view; the centralized handle control replaces multiple handle controls, and the electronic control replaces Manual control; and the electronic monitor and height display are gradually standard on high lift forklifts.
3. 5 industrial design î€„
In recent years, major companies have introduced new models with attractive appearances, reflecting the development trend of forklift model sedan. Streamlined, large arc transitions combined with brightly coordinated color matching. With the development of computer technology, the use of advanced design methods such as virtual prototype design, 3D solid modeling, rapid prototyping and advanced manufacturing technology, forklift styling will be more and more innovative and distinctive.
3.6 Paying Attention to the Safety, Reliability and Maintainability of Forklifts To ensure the safety of drivers has always been a key consideration for forklift designers. In addition to parking, driving brakes, forward lock self-locking, lower speed limit and other basic safety measures, it is equipped with a fully functional monitoring system, dynamic braking system, anti-rollover system, and three sets of independent electronic control, hydraulic and mechanical. The brake system greatly improves the safety and reliability of the vehicle. At the same time, the development and application of electronic technology has made the research on the safety of forklifts develop in an intelligent direction. In terms of improving maintainability, it focuses on simplification of assembly and disassembly, component assembly, centralized fueling, inspection and monitoring, improved component accessibility, and minimization of items requiring maintenance. î€ƒ
3.7 Development of container forklifts and container front liftersî€„
At present, the main producers of container handling and stacking equipment are concentrated in Europe, such as Kalmar, SMV in Sweden, Belotti in Italy, CVS, Fantuzzi, PPM in France, SISU Valmet in Finland, and Linde in Germany. There is only one domestic container forklift, and only two of the front lift spreaders are produced, mainly relying on imports. Container forklifts are still indispensable equipment for handling and stacking empty containers at all container ports, terminals and transfer stations, and the number of stacking layers is increasing. The container front lifter for handling and stacking 20 and 40 foot heavy boxes, because of its good view, can be hoisted across the box row, has the function of stacking the 2nd and 3rd columns of containers, runs smoothly, and will gradually replace the heavy box. Container forklift.
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